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Guides index

INCORE guide to sources on Second Track Diplomacy

Resources compiled by Niall Whelehan (December 2004)


The aim of this INCORE thematic guide to second track diplomacy is to provide full-text publications and resources for those interested whether academically or practically in second track diplomacy and peacebuilding efforts. In this context, second track diplomacy is understood as activities undertaken by non-governmental actors to transform conflicts between and within states. Issues relating to multi-track diplomacy are also covered in this guide.

Inclusion in this guide does not imply an endorsement by INCORE of the views expressed in any of these sources. If you have a complaint about this guide or believe that we have omitted a relevant source please read our information about the guides before writing to us. You may find that this will answer some of your questions. This includes a warning about the type of information included in the guide, information about our 'criteria for inclusion' in the guides and about our 'updating and additions policy'.


Online Journals


Institutions/ NGOs

Internet Resources


General :

Berghof Handbook - Berghof Research Center
The Berghof Handbook includes many valuable articles and aims to offer a systematic overview of the state-of-the-art of conflict transformation, documenting and assessing the various strengths and weaknesses of these approaches.


Second Track Diplomacy
This honours thesis was written by Michael Bavly in 1999. This essay explains the theory of Second Track Diplomacy while using the Palestinian-Israeli peace process as a case study.


Conflict Research Consortium
International Online Training Program on Intractable Conflict, University of Colorado, USA. The website offers and introductory article about ”Unofficial Communication, Citizen Diplomacy, and Multi-track Diplomacy” and various articles and links about multi-track diplomacy.


Distance Learning Course in Conflict Management and Negotiation
The Inter-American Defense College (IADC), in association with the Institute of World Affairs, offer an on-line course on conflict management and negotiation and provide general information about track-two approaches to conflict resolution.

Field Diplomacy: A new conflict prevention paradigm?
In this article Luc Reychler discuss the role and function of field diplomacy which he refers to “a credible presence in the field, a serious commitment to conflict transformation, a multi-level approach, elicitive engagement, a broad time perspective, attention to the deeper layers of the conflict, preference for an integrative conflict-prevention policy, and the recognition of the inter-dependency between seemingly different conflicts.”


Further Exploration of Track Two Diplomacy
This article by John McDonald discusses all of the approaches to diplomatic solutions and shows how they relate to official, track one diplomatic efforts.


Multi-Track Diplomacy in the 21st Century - European Platform for Conflict Prevention and Transformation.
Article by Louise Diamond where she examines how multi-track diplomacy could become a major force for peacebuilding efforts in a turbulent and often violent world of the 21st century.

Exploring the local capacity for peace: the role of NGOs Click Here

ACP-EU Courier (development magazine). In this article Paul van Tongeren stresses the advantages of second track actors towards sustainable peacebuilding efforts instead of interest-led politics of states and their diplomats. http://www.xs4all.nl/~conflic1/pbp/part1/6_multit.htm

Track II (Citizen) Diplomacy
Introductory essay by Diana Chigas on the functions of informal intermediaries, the contributions of unofficial interventions and several other core aspects of Second Track Diplomacy.


Choosing to Engage - Armed Groups and Peace Processes.
This Accord issue (2005) examines the challenges and issues involved in dealing with armed groups in peacemaking
.Written by researchers and practitioners, 'Choosing to Engage' reflects upon lessons learned in various conflicts and contexts, and outlines practical means of engaging armed groups - for those involved in official and unofficial peacemaking efforts. http://www.cr.org/accord/engage/accord16/index.shtml

Case Studies:

Committee for Conflict Transformation Support
This essay by Judith Large focuses on dilemmas in local, regional and international inter-action for peace-building and assesses cases of multi-track diplomacy in Bosnia and Kosovo, Maluku and East Timor.


The Inter-Tajik Dialogue: From Civil War towards Civil Society
Article by Randa M. Slim and Harold H. Saunders that treats the non-official Inter-Tajik Dialogue which began in March 1993, when seven individuals from different factions in the civil war initiated a non-official diplomatic solution to the conflict in Tajikistan.

Preventing Genocide in Burundi
Lessons from International Diplomacy – United States Institute of Peace.

Track Two Diplomacy and Regional Security in the Middle East: Prospects and Limits
The George Washington University. Draft paper from Dalia Dassa Kaye, The George Washington University, prepared for delivery at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Chicago Hilton, February 20-24, 2001.

Action Evaluation and Citizen Peace-Building in the Georgia-Abkhazia Conflict: Ownership in Conflict Transformation
This article examines the work accomplished in the last five years in the conflict region of Georgia/Abkhazia in the former Soviet Union. Focused specifically on citizen peacebuilding efforts between Georgians and Abkhaz, the article shows how the Action Evaluation methodology facilitated a process of participatory project design and implementation that enabled the participants to thoroughly study both their conflict and their respective views about it, while exploring what kinds of changes would be necessary in these attitudes, and what resulting actions could positively transform the conflict.

Multi-Track Diplomacy in Cyprus
European Centre for Conflict Prevention. Article written by Louise Diamond.


Online Journals

Cardoza Journal of Conflict Resolution.
Journal of the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law in New York, a school that focuses on ‘ADR’ – alternative dispute resolution – as a burgeoning field of law.

The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution (OJPCR)
The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution is intended as a resource for students, teachers and practitioners in fields relating to the reduction and elimination of conflict. It desires to be a free, yet valuable, source of information to aid anyone trying to work toward a less violent and more cooperative world.

Peace and Conflict Studies, published by The Network of Peace and Conflict Studies, George Mason University
The journal is committed to academic research on conflict analysis and resolution, peace building, humanitarian intervention, peacekeeping and other mechanisms that seek to prevent and control violence. We are also interested in publishing articles which focus on promoting global social change and nonviolence: ecological balance, development, human rights, peace movements and gender. The journal’s aim is to provide space for the interactive research needed for the accumulation of a knowledge base in peace and conflict research.

The African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD)
This magazine offers at-a-glance overviews of both developments in conflicts and positive steps towards renaissance on the continent of Africa. Also included are in-depth articles focusing on conflict analysis.

African Journal in Conflict Resolution
Articles are longer and more in depth than those found in Conflict Trends, and of an overtly academic nature.

Track Two
Track two is a quarterly publication of the Centre for Conflict Resolution and the Media Peace Centre (South Africa) to promote innovative and constructive approaches to community and political conflict, as an alternative to traditional adversarial tactics.


Peace Brigades International
Peace Brigades International (PBI) is a grassroots organization that explores and promotes nonviolent peacekeeping and support for human rights. They have a number of projects around the world. Additionally, PBI trains people in nonviolence, conflict resolution and human rights, and documents conflicts and initiatives for peace.

Community Relations Council (CRC)
A Belfast based organisation, dedicated to the promotion of better community relation between the communities in Northern Ireland, and to the recognition of cultural diversity. Extensive resources are available on-line including news and press releases, and a number of CRC publications.

International Peace Academy (New York, USA)
The International Peace Academy (IPA) is an independent, international institution dedicated to promoting the prevention and settlement of armed conflicts between and within states through policy research and development. Among other activities, IPA runs a programme of seminars on peacekeeping and conflict resolution for military, diplomatic, political, and humanitarian personnel; participants include diplomats, military officers, and staff members of the UN, other regional and international institutions, humanitarian agencies and non governmental institutions.

Austrian Study Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution
Since 1993 ASPR has offered the IPT course, the 'Civilian Peace-Keeping and Peace- Building and Training Program' in co-operation with the European Centre for Peace Studies (EPU). The program consists of a three week foundation course, followed by an optional one week function-oriented training. The courses are offered several times a year and are aimed at qualified civilians interested in participating in peace- keeping and peace-building activities in conflict regions. Faculty is drawn from an international group of resource persons familiar with the UN and NGO activities in this realm. ASPR is also involved in other training activities, an example being a 'Summer School on the OSCE' (July-August 1997), in collaboration with the Netherlands Helsinki Committee and the Berghof Research Centre (Berlin, Germany). [Arno Truger, Renate Korber, Friedrich Glasl, Dudley Weeks, et al].

Post War Reconstruction & Development Unit
Since October 1996, the PDRU of the Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies of the University of York, has offered a one year modular MA course in "Post-War Recovery Studies" for humanitarian aid workers, development practitioners, and peace-keepers working in war-torn countries. There are four major components: Understanding conflict and the international response; practical skills of working in conflict and settlement reconstruction; strategic planning and project evaluation; managerial, organisational and training skills. [Sultan Barakat, Sue Ellis]

Centre for Conflict Resolution (Bradford)
Bradford offers academic programmes in Peace Studies (BA and MA and Post Graduate Diploma). Staff and researchers associated with Working In Conflict Zones are also in the business of facilitating an extensive programme of training seminars and workshops, both domestically and internationally. Constituencies have been diplomats from Eastern Europe, teachers, social workers, health professionals, industrial dispute negotiators, and management personnel, as well as peace and human rights activists, NGO's, church groups, and community education projects. Countries where the centre has provided training workshops include Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Uganda, Croatia, Serbia, and Macedonia.[Nick Lewer, Tom Woodhouse]

University of Maryland
The Center for International Development and Conflict Management (CIDCM) conducts an intensive short program on second track diplomacy and peace building within the field of alternative dispute resolution to provide experiential learning and multiple perspectives on ways to bring about conflict transformation and peace building.

Humanitarian Assistance Training Inventory (HATI)
The focus of this database on Humanitarian Assistance Training Inventory (HATI) is on training for the staff of humanitarian assistance organizations.

Lester Pearson Peacekeeping Centre
The Pearson Peacekeeping Centre offers an extensive line of courses for any individual involved in peace operations activities and also delivers customized versions of their courses to meet the specific needs of organizations.

Summer Peacebuilding Institute (SPI)
The Summer Peacebuilding Institute is a program of the Conflict Transformation Program (CTP) at Eastern Mennonite University (EMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia. SPI is designed to provide specialized, intensive training in peacebuilding, conflict transformation, trauma healing, and restorative justice to practitioners from around the world. SPI offers a sequence of courses in 7-day intensive formats during May and June, which may be taken for academic credit or as professional training (non-credit).

International Conflict Research (INCORE)
The annual International Summer School offers a structured learning opportunity based on the latest research and concepts in specific topics of conflict resolution. Senior level participants from all backgrounds - practitioner, policy-maker, academic - are invited to compare, contrast and learn from different perspectives. INCORE (International Conflict Research) was set up in 1993 by the University of Ulster and the United Nations University to undertake research and policy work that is useful to the resolution of ethnic, political and religious conflicts.

Institutions / NGOs

Search for Common Ground
With details of its various projects around the world, Search for Common Ground offers a toolbox of conflict resolution techniques among other things.

European Platform for Conflict Prevention
The European Platform for Conflict Prevention and Transformation is a network of European non-governmental organisations involved in the prevention and/or resolution of violent conflicts in the international arena. Its mission is to facilitate the exchange of information and experience among participating organisations, as well as to stimulate co-operation and synergy. The secretariat of the Platform is hosted by the European Centre for Conflict Prevention which is based in Utrecht, the Netherlands. This extensive resource offers a series of Internet based country surveys, thematic essays, and organisation lists by country.

Center for Human Rights and Conflict Resolution CHRCR
Based in the Fletcher School at Tufts University the CHRCR holds conferences and seminars in the area of conflict resolution and second-track diplomacy and also offers specialised training courses.

Coexistence Initiative
Based in New York, the Coexistence Initiative 'seeks to catalyse a global awareness of, and commitment to, creating a world safe for difference'. The Initiative develops and promotes programmes for positive coexistence. The website provides information and resources as well as a number of searchable databases.

Community Relations Council (CRC)
A Belfast based organisation, dedicated to the promotion of better community relation between the communities in Northern Ireland, and to the recognition of cultural diversity. Extensive resources are available on-line including news and press releases, and a number of CRC publications.

Co-operation Ireland
With offices in Belfast, Dublin, London and New York, this organisation works on a cross border basis to promote mutual understanding and respect among the communities in the north and south of Ireland. They organise a series of Youth education and community programmes, an economic co-operation programme, and a number of fund-raising and special events.

Corrymeela Community
Corrymeela aims to provide an environment where mutual trust and respect can be built with the two communities in Northern Ireland. The community hosts a number of residentials, and offers a series of training and learning projects in the field of conflict and mediation.

Department of Peace and Conflict Research
Besides its regular degree courses in Peace and Conflict Studies, Uppsala has organised every year since 1988 a six week Advanced International Program on Conflict Resolution (PACS) to contribute to conflict resolution competence around the world. PACS focuses on the theory and practice of managing large-scale organised conflicts between and within states, on the trends and origins of contemporary patterns of conflict and on ways of solving conflicts in equitable and viable manners, and invites scholars and teachers at universities and research institutes mostly residing in third world countries. In 1993 the Department convened its first Executive Seminar, bringing together well known researchers as well as practitioners from international organisations such as the UN, OAS, OAU, EU and OSCE. [Peter Wallensteen, Kjell-Ake Nordquist, et al.]

Heidelberg Institute of International Conflict Research
This research institute provides updated information and analysis of conflict situations world wide. This includes the annual publication of the ‘Conflict Barometer’, which describes recent trends in global conflict developments, escalations, de-escalations, and settlements. A detailed database of conflict study between 1945 and today is also included.

Institute for International Mediation and Conflict Resolution
The Institute for International Mediation and Conflict Resolution (IIMCR) is a Washington, DC based, non-profit, institution that promotes peaceful conflict resolution techniques through the design and implementation of unique programmes and services. One such programme is the International Symposia, which has taken place in the Netherlands, Mexico, and Cyprus, and trained over 1000 students and professionals from over 50 countries.

Conciliation Resources
Generally involved in support for community based peace initiatives, sometimes involving training, such as vocational skills training and policy analysis for journalists (Fiji, Sierra Leone), organisational development and team building (Fiji), negotiation, mediation and team building (Sierra Leone). [Andy Carl, David Lord, Davin Bremner, Clem McCartney, et al.].

Collaborative for Development Action
The Collaborative for Development Action, Inc. is a consulting agency based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1985, the company has focused on economic and social development in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Eastern and Central Europe. CDA staff has worked in over seventy-five countries with over one hundred international organizations, including European and North American governments, United Nations agencies, the World Bank, members of the Red Cross movement, universities and training centers, and non-governmental organizations. CDA organizes and spearheads efforts that focus on the role of third party actors in conflict or post-conflict contexts. CDA currently directs efforts that involve humanitarian and development agencies, peace and conflict resolution organizations, multinational corporations and donor agencies.

Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy
The final piece in the conceptual context of IMTD's practice is the concept of Multi-Track Diplomacy. Since 1992 the Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy has initiated and facilitated various conflict-resolution and conflict-transformation projects in troubled regions in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle-East. Most recently IMTD has been working in Georgia, Bosnia & Hercegovina, the Great Lakes Region of East Africa, Liberia, Nepal, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Jordan, Libya, India, Pakistan and Kashmir, and with Dalai Lama and Tibetan Government in Exile.

Conflict Resolution Center International
Conflict Resolution Center International is a non-profit center promoting non-violent conflict resolution. CRCI is home of one of the largest libraries on conflict and dispute resolution which is regularly updated and on-line.

International Alert
Drawing from field experience, IA contribute towards the development of long-term policy approaches in conflict prevention and peacebuilding, focusing on practical, concrete and accountable initiatives informed by best practice. IA is one of the leading NGOs in the field of conflict resolution.

Karuna Center for Peacebuilding
In regions experiencing protracted social conflict, the Karuna Center for Peacebuilding offers training programs in conflict prevention, transformation and management, with a special focus on inter-communal dialogue and reconciliation.

Association for Conflict Resolution
ACR represents and serves a diverse national and international audience that includes more than 6000 mediators, arbitrators, facilitators, educators, and others involved in the field of conflict resolution and collaborative decision-making.

School of Conflict Management and Human Rights, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa.
The Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento, at Sant’Anna, in Pisa, offers a one year master’s programme in Conflict Management and Resolution. The programme consists of an intensive six month semester of lectures and workshops (Feb-July) after which the student is required to begin an internship with a relevant international organization (Sept-Dec).

Berghof Research Center
The Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management initiates, supports and monitors projects and institutions which aim to transform ethnopolitical conflicts. In order to monitor and support peacebuilding processes over the longer term, the Berghof Research Center aims to interlink four core areas of work: 1) practically oriented research; 2) support for local peace initiatives; 3) networking; and 4) policy advice.

African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes
The African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD) is an international civil-society organisation working throughout Africa to bring appropriate African solutions to the challenges posed by conflict on the continent.

The Conflict, Development, and Peace Network
This website is a forum for the sharing of ideas, knowledge and experience, and for the discussion of policy and practice relating to conflict, development and peace. It also contains a database with information on organisations, agencies, institutions, government departments, networks and individuals who are working in the fields of conflict, development and peace.

Responding to Conflict
Responding to Conflict (RTC) is an international, not-for-profit agency, based in Birmingham (UK). RTC provide advice, cross-cultural training and longer-term support to people working for peace, development, rights and humanitarian assistance in societies affected or threatened by violent conflict. The focus of their work is on strengthening both practice and policy-making, and their aim is to help build action-oriented capacity for conflict transformation and peace-building in the areas where it is most needed.

Center for Dispute Resolution
CDR is an international collaborative conflict resolution firm located in Boulder, Colorado. CDR provides professional decision making, organizational consulting, public participation, and conflict management assistance to the public, private, and non-governmental sectors. They have been involved in diverse projects in over twenty-five countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Central and South America, and Europe.

WSP International
War-torn Societies Project assists societies affected by war to overcome conflict and to build lasting peace. It does this by promoting processes of consultation, research and analysis with all sectors of society, including international assistance agencies and donors. WSP, although an NGO, works in close contact with the UN.


Internet Resources

A comprehensive gateway to conflict resolution resources, CRInfo is a joint field-wide effort to utilize the power of the World Wide Web to make information on conflict resolution, peace, and dispute resolution more easily accessible.

Information on Approaches to Intractable Conflicts
Online information resource on conflict management that provides a guide to articles, interviews, statistics, and teaching materials.

Juris International – Dispute Esolution Centre
This collection offers information on arbitration, mediation, conciliation and expertise centres, by continent and country, including the full text of their rules and model clauses.

Peacemakers: Bibliography
This site contains many references about conflict resolution, peace research and peacebuilding.

Informations about Peace and Conflict
This site provides essential information and links about institutions, journals, conferences etc. dealing with peace and conflict research.

Conciliation Resources
Conciliation Resources serves as an international resource for local organizations pursuing conflict resolution initiatives. They aim to support groups working at community, national and international levels to prevent violence or transform armed conflict into opportunities for social, political and economic development. They are currently involved in projects in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, Uganda, Angola, and the Caucasus among other areas, where they provide support to local NGO’s and peacebuilding associations.

Conflict Research Consortium
The University of Colorado Conflict Research Consortium Web-site contains a broad range of resources related to the conflict resolution field's overall knowledge base and, especially, strategies for dealing more constructively with especially difficult and intractable conflicts.

Crisiswatch and Conflict Histories Database
Hosted by the NGO International Crisis Group, this database provides up to date information on over fifty countries worldwide and is a useful tool for investigating conflict situations.


Disclaimer: © INCORE 2010 Last Updated on Friday, 19-Mar-2010 15:50
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