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Guides index


Version 1/03, February 2003. Compiled by Tineke Vaes.

This Thematic Guide is intended as an aid to those researching mediation as it is used to address conflicts of a local, national or international nature. A selection of general information on resources on mediation is provided, and there is also a specific section on resources on mediation in Northern Ireland.

Although related to mediation, the practice of restorative justice has not been included due to its unique characteristics. Instead, it has been given a separate webpage which can be found here.

General Resources

Academic Articles

Preventing Genocide in Burundi: Lessons from International Diplomacy
Article by Stephen R. Weissman, analysing the diplomatic efforts to the Burundi conflict.

Is Mediation Alien to Africa?
Article by Bethuel Kiplagat, exploring the spiritual dimensions of mediation and peacemaking on the African continent.

Beyond Mediation: The Integral Role of Non-Governmental Approaches to Resolving Protracted Ethnic Conflicts in Lesser Developed Countries
Article by David Baharvar, describing the complementary role of non-governmental organisations in official mediation.

Does Refugee Protection in Africa Need Mediation?
Track Two article by George Okoth-Obbo.

The Prospects for International Mediation in the Basque Peace Process
Article by Kiko Moraiz which states that both the Basque and the Spanish people could benefit from a negotiated settlement.

Analysing the Dynamics of International Mediation Processes in the Middle East and the Former Yugoslavia
Article by Deborah J. Gerner and Philip A. Schrodt of the University of Kansas.

Exploring Deeper Wisdoms of Mediation: Notes from the Edge
Article by Margaret S. Herrman, exploring the spiritual philosophy behind mediation.

Mediation and Multi-Cultural Reality
Article by Michelle Le Baron. The article seeks to advance the theory and practice in connecting mediation and multiculturalism in three ways: by summarizing implications of multiple cultures for the study and design of conflict resolution processes; by examining communication frameworks for understanding cultural difference for their usefulness in advancing practice; and by exploring how intercultural capacity can be built by third parties.

Facilitation and Mediation in South Africa: Three Case Studies
Article by Hendrik Van Der Merwe.

What We Can Learn From Comparing Mediation Across Levels
Article by Tom W. Millburn.

At the Core: Six Strategic Principles of Mediation
Article by Laurie Nathan in which he develops six strategic principles of mediation and suggests that international actors would do well to apply the principles and to rely more on the expertise of professional mediators.

A Case of Undue Pressure: International Mediation in African Civil Wars
Article by Laurie Nathan, presented at the African Mediation Seminar, Independent Mediation Service of South Africa and Centre for Conflict Resolution, Johannesburg, 3-5 November 1998.

When Push Comes to Shove: The Failure of International Mediation in African Civil Wars
Article by Laurie Nathan. This paper focuses on the mediator's strategy and tactics as variables that enhance or diminish the prospect of success. It argues that state and inter-governmental mediators frequently deviate from the logic of mediation and resort instead to power-based diplomacy.

Modelling Mediation: Evolving Approaches to Mediation in South Africa
Article by Andries Odendaal.

Keepers of the Peace: Reviving the Tradition of the Bashingantahe in Burundi
Article by Louis-Marie Nindorera, which explores the prospects for reviving the institution of the Bashingantahe, selected elder mediation, to bring peace to Burundi.

Beyond Mediation: How South Africa's 'Other Mediation' is Challenging Conventional Models
Article by Daniel Nina. An indigenised, hybrid mediation is being practices in South African communities, broadening and deepening our understanding of what mediation means.

Lord Carrington's Mediation of the Rhodesian Settlement: Zimbabwe's Second Chimurenga Concludes
Article by Resat Bayer which offers a chronology of the dispute and an analysis of the mediation process.

International Conflict Mediation Organisations in the Post-Cold War World Order
Article by M. Wuori.

An Atmosphere of Reconciliation: a Theory of Resolving Ethnic Conflicts Based on the Transcaucasian Conflicts
Article by Anthony Baird, in which he states that a method geared towards creating an atmosphere of reconciliation will have the most success at resolving modern ethnic conflicts.

Conflict Resolution in Sri Lanka: Problems and Prospects
Article by S. Sathananthan.

Victim-Offender Mediation Programs: An Exploration of Practice and Theoretical Frameworks
This paper explores what is known from victim-offender mediation research as well as related literature about victim willingness to participate in such meetings and its significance for criminal justice practice. An exploratory framework is suggested, drawing from restorative justice, equity theory, and narrative theory to stimulate further investigation of this area. Specific research questions and their implications for future research are identified.

The Canadian Centre for Foreign Policy Development
The Centre offers various articles on mediation in Africa, available in pdf format.

Negotiation Styles in Mediation
Article describing the five styles of dispute resolution most often used by negotiators.


The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs
The Forum publishes a journal on current world affairs, including articles on mediation.

Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution
The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution is intended as a resource for students, teachers and practitioners in fields relating to the reduction and elimination of conflict. It desires to be a free, yet valuable, source of information to aid anyone trying to work toward a less violent and more cooperative world. Its archive offers a variety of articles on mediation.

Organisations, Including Training Resources

The Conflict Resolution Information Source
CRInfo offers links to web, print and organisational resources in the field of conflict resolution, including information on mediation.

The Centre for Conflict Resolution
The Centre for Conflict Resolution seeks to contribute towards a just peace in South Africa and elsewhere in Africa by promoting constructive, creative and co-operative approaches to the resolution of conflict and the reduction of violence. Mediation, facilitation, training, education and research comprise the Centre's main activities, with an emphasis on capacity building.

Mediation UK
Mediation UK is a national voluntary organisation dedicated to developing constructive means of resolving conflicts in the communities. It seeks to promote a network of local mediation services and offers practical support to developing and established services.

Peacemakers Trust
Peacemakers Trust is a Canadian non-profit organisation dedicated to research, education, and consultation on conflict resolution and peacebuilding.

The Carter Center
The Carter Center seeks to prevent and resolve conflicts, enhance freedom and democracy, and improve health. The site offers information on the center's activities with regard to negotiation, mediation and peace implementation.

The Institute for International Mediation and Conflict Resolution
The Institute is a non-profit organisation whose mission is to promote the use of peaceful conflict resolution techniques among a generation of future leaders through the design and implementation of unique programs and services.

Victim Offender Mediation Association
Based in Minneapolis, USA, the Association supports and assists people and communities working at restorative models of justice. VOMA provides resources, training, and technical assistance in victim-offender mediation, conferencing, circles, and related restorative justice practices.

Directory of Victim-Offender Mediation Programs in the United States
Directory compiled by Dr. Mark Umbreit of the Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, University of Minnesota.

National Survey of Victim-Offender Mediation Programs in the United States
Survey, conducted in 2000 by Claudia Fercello and Jenni Umbreit.

The Canadian International Institute of Applied Negotiation
The Institute is dedicated to preventing and resolving conflict at local, national and international levels. It aims to integrate innovative ADR techniques and applied research into the practice of peace-building, mediation and the training of Dispute Resolution professionals both nationally and internationally.

Forum Mundial de Mediación - World Mediation Forum
In Spanish, English and French, the aim of this website is to improve communication between its members and with everyone interested in the subject of mediation as a non-adversarial technique for dispute resolution.

The Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School
The Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School (PON) is an applied research center committed to improving the theory and practice of negotiation and dispute resolution. PON is working to change the way people, organizations, and nations resolve their disputes -- shifting the process from "win-lose" outcomes to "all-gain" solutions. The program includes diverse research projects on the topic of mediation and negotiation.

The Third Side
The Third Side is a part of the Global Negotiation Project at Harvard University. It aims to transform conflict, to change the form it takes from bitter arguments, power contests, violence, and war into dialogue, negotiation, and democracy.

Conflict Management New Zealand
Conflict Management New Zealand is part of an international network of specialists in conflict management, originating from the Harvard Negotiation Project. It aims to build understanding, professional competence and capability in the application of appropriate conflict management methods to public policy issues.

PICAR - Program on International Conflict Analysis and Resolution
Housed at the Weatherhead Centre for International Affairs at Harvard, PICAR is devoted to the development, study, and application of an interactive problem-solving approach to the resolution of conflicts between states and communities. Although PICAR focuses mainly on the Middle East, projects have also been developed in Sri Lanka, the Balkans, Cyprus, Northern Ireland, Colombia and Cuba.


Conflict Management Group
The Conflict Management Group is a non-profit organisation which offers a range of negotiation and leadership skills training and consulting services.

Stanford Centre on Conflict and Negotiation
The Stanford Center on Conflict and Negotiation is Stanford University's interdisciplinary center for the study of conflict and its resolution. Its primary focus is on theory-building, especially in the identification and analysis of the barriers -strategic, psychological and institutional- to conflict resolution, as well as bridges to overcome those barriers.

United States Institute for Peace
The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created and funded by Congress to strengthen the nation's capacity to promote the peaceful resolution of international conflict. The Institue offers interesting articles and links on mediation and conflict resolution.

Centre for Applied Studies in International Negotiations
The Centre, based in Switzerland, focuses on governance, negotiation, mediation, conflict management and diplomacy.

Mediation in Northern Ireland

Academic Articles

The Role of International Mediation in the Northern Ireland Peace Process
Article by Kevin King, which traces the complex history of the Northern Ireland conflict and which examines why the talks led by George Mitchell ultimately succeeded.

Mediation Call in Loyalist Feud
BBC article on the use of mediation to settle disputes within the different Loyalist groups.

Drumcree Dispute 'Needs Local Mediation'
BBC article describing the difficulties in mediating the dispute over the Drumcree parade.

Art of Mediation
Description of the three phase project on mediation, organised by INCORE in collaboration with Rotary International. The project involved an Art of Mediation Workshop; an observation study monitoring mediation initiatives attempted in response to disputes over parades in Northern Ireland and an exploration of Mediation in an International Context.

Stewarding, Mediation and Monitoring: A Community Level Approach to Public Order
This report is a result of a series of conferences held between October and December of 1999 on the issues of stewarding, mediation and monitoring. The conferences were organised by INCORE, Community Development Centre, Democratic Dialogue, INNATE, Mediation Network, Peace and Reconciliation Group, and Youth Action.

Organisations, Including Training Resources

Mediation Northern Ireland
Mediation Northern Ireland, previously The Mediation Network for Northern Ireland, wishes to promote the practice of mediation and train mediators in Northern Ireland.

Democratic Dialogue
Democratic Dialogue provides an independent inspiration for reflective thinking upon the critical issues confronting the people of Northern Ireland.

Mediation Through Play in Northern Ireland
Description of a mediation program in Northern Ireland, aimed at schoolchildren.

Inclusion or non-inclusion within this site is not a reflection of the quality of the material. The information and resources presented reflect the individual views of each contributor and are not necessarily the opinions, practices, or policies of INCORE.

Disclaimer: © INCORE 2010 Last Updated on Friday, 19-Mar-2010 15:50
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