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Guides index

INCORE guide to Internet sources on Mass Media and Conflict

Resources compiled by Alessia Montanari (May 2005)


Inclusion in this guide does not imply an endorsement by INCORE of the views expressed in any of these sources. If you have a complaint about this guide or believe that we have omitted a relevant source please read our information about the guides before writing to us. You may find that this will answer some of your questions. This includes a warning about the type of information included in the guide, information about our 'criteria for inclusion' in the guides and about our 'updating and additions policy'.


News Sources (Research Institutes)

Brookings Institution
The Brookings Institution, one of Washington's oldest think tanks, is an independent, non-partisan organization devoted to research, analysis, and public education with an emphasis on economics, foreign policy, governance, and metropolitan policy.
Last year, The Brookings Institution launched a weekly discussion series on news media issues growing out of the current anti-terrorism campaign. It was also a forum to consider other media matters that relate to the current crisis, such as the use of new media technology and the economics of providing adequate war coverage. Project homepage and discussions archive address is: http://www.brookings.edu/GS/Projects/Press/Press.htm
On June 17, 2003 Brookings Institution organized the discussing panel "Assessing Media Coverage of the War in Iraq: press reports, pentagon rules, and lessons for the future", completely transcribed in PDF version, available on:

Centre for Digital Democracy
The Center for Digital Democracy is committed to preserving the openness and diversity of the Internet in the broadband era, and to realizing the full potential of digital communications through the development and encouragement of noncommercial, public interest programming.

Centre for Media and Democracy
The Center for Media and Democracy is a non-profit organization that works to strengthen democracy by promoting media that are "of, by and for the people" - genuinely informative and broadly participatory - and by removing the barriers and distortions of the modern information environment that stem from government- or corporate-dominated, hierarchical media.
One of its Sourcewatch Project's research area is "War propaganda", collecting articles and comments on:
- Al Hurra: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Al_Hurra
- American Forces Radio and Television Service: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=American_Forces_Radio_and_Television_Service
- Jessica Lynch: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Jessica_Lynch
- Judith Miller: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Judith_Miller
A section of the web site is dedicated to Arab Networks (especially al-Jazeera and al Arabia), that played a crucial role in Iraqi War coverage, counterbalancing Western media: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Al_Jazeera

Center for Media and Public Affairs - CMPA
The Center for Media and Public Affairs (CMPA) is a non-partisan research and educational organization which conducts scientific studies of the news and entertainment media. Online archive of its magazine articles Media Monitor provides readers with useful information and links related to media coverage on wars and related issues.

European Journalism Centre
The European Journalism Centre (EJC) is an independent, international, non-profit institute dedicated to the highest standards in journalism, primarily through the further training of journalists and media professionals. Building on its extensive international network, the Centre operates as a facilitator and partner in a wide variety of training projects.

FAIR, an US media watch group, has been offering well-documented criticism of media bias and censorship since 1986. It works to invigorate the First Amendment by advocating for greater diversity in the press and by scrutinizing media practices that marginalize public interest, minority and dissenting viewpoints.
FAIR's issue area "War and Militarism collect a detailed series of articles dealing with media representations of wars, focusing both on 9/11 consequences and on other regional conflicts (for example: Nicaragua, Honduras…): http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=7&issue_area_id=26.

Free Press
Free Press is a national nonpartisan organization working to increase informed public participation in crucial media policy debates, and to generate policies that will produce a more competitive and public interest-oriented media system with a strong nonprofit and noncommercial sector.
Its "war and peace issues" section is online available:

Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR)
The Institute for War & Peace Reporting strengthens local journalism in areas of conflict. By training reporters, facilitating dialogue and providing reliable information, it supports peace, democracy and development in societies undergoing crisis and change.

Media Matters for America
Media Matters for America is a Web-based, not-for-profit, progressive research and information centre dedicated to comprehensively monitoring, analyzing, and correcting conservative misinformation in the U.S. media. Launched in May 2004, Media Matters for America put in place the means to systematically monitor a cross section of print, broadcast, cable, radio, and Internet media outlets for conservative misinformation -- news or commentary that is not accurate, reliable, or credible and that forwards the conservative agenda -- every day, in real time.

Media Research Centre
The mission of the Media Research Center is to bring balance and responsibility to the news media. Through the MRC's implementation of a large and comprehensive media monitoring operation in the world, the MRC serves as the checks and balances on the Fourth Estate.
A special section entitled "Media War Watch" is entirely focused on media conflicts' coverage analyses US media attitude towards war, especially after 9/11:

Media Tenor
Media Tenor is dedicated to objective, continuous monitoring of international media content day after day. It analyses deferent media sources (press, tv, internet…) from the United States, Europe, Israel, South Africa, the Arab Countries and Asia.
A special section is daily focusing on media coverage of Iraqi War.

MEMRI - The Middle East Media Research Institute
The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) explores the Middle East through the region's media. MEMRI bridges the language gap which exists between the West and the Middle East, providing timely translations of Arabic, Farsi, and Hebrew media, as well as original analysis of political, ideological, intellectual, social, cultural, and religious trends in the Middle East. Founded in February 1998 to inform the debate over U.S. policy in the Middle East, MEMRI is an independent, non-partisan, non-profit, 501 (c)3 organization. MEMRI's headquarters is located in Washington, DC with branch offices in Berlin, London, and Jerusalem.

MERIP - Middle East Research and Information Project
MERIP is a non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Washington, DC. A completely independent organization. Established 32 years ago, the original conception of MERIP was to provide information and analysis on the Middle East that would be picked up by the existing media. Since 1996, MERIP has maintained one of the most informative websites on Middle East politics, culture and society.

The Project for Excellence in Journalism is an initiative by journalists to clarify and raise the standards of American journalism. PEJ pursues the aim of clarifying standards by bringing journalists together to decide for themselves what their purpose and aims are. Amidst its resources there are books, articles and research papers about all the tools of journalism (for example: war, coverage of the war on terror, embedded journalists).
A whole and detailed section has been provided in order to inform readers about media coverage on Iraqi war:

European Institute for the Media
A think tank which analyses media and communications development in the Europe of the digital age and advises policy makers, governments and other social groups on the improvement of freedom of media in all parts of Europe, on the constituents of the future "civil digital society" and on the prosperity and social well-being within the evolving new media economy. The European Institute for the Media operates with a global perspective including the co-operation with institutions on other continents.




American Free Press
It is a populist American weekly newspaper that reports what the mainstream media usually do not talk about. Continuously updated news refer to Iraqi war and to Middle East crisis, while the archive provides readers with rich analysis of past events related to war and media coverage.

CounterPunch is the bi-weekly muckraking newsletter edited by Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair. Twice a month it brings readers the stories that the corporate press never prints.
The archive and the book section could be useful links to deepen research on media & conflict.

Democracy Now
This American, independent News Programme hosted by award-winning journalists Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez allows audience to access perspectives rarely heard in the U.S. corporate-sponsored media. Its "War and Peace Report" is wholly committed to deal with Bush Administration Strategy to face international Terrorism.

Middle East Intelligence Bulletin
Middle East Intelligence Bulletin (MEIB) is a free monthly publication, dedicated to providing informed analysis of political and strategic developments in Lebanon, Syria & the Middle East. It is jointly published by the United States Committee for a Free Lebanon and the Middle East Forum.

PR Watch
A publication by the Centre for Media and Democracy, dedicated to investigative reporting on the public relations industry. It serves citizens, journalists and researchers seeking to recognize and combat manipulative and misleading PR practices.




News Agencies' Web Sites

AlterNet is a project of the Independent Media Institute, a non-profit organization dedicated to strengthening and supporting independent and alternative journalism. Since its inception in 1998, it provides readers with crucial facts and passionate opinions they could not find anywhere else.

CASCFEN - Central Asia and Southern Caucasus Freedom of Expression Network
A news portal of dedicated to covering daily media news from 10 countries of the region: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is a voluntary association of public organizations, called to protect freedom of expression and press in the region, according to Article 19 of the Universal Human Rights Declaration.

Common Dreams
Common Dreams is a national non-profit citizens' organization working to bring progressive Americans together to promote progressive visions for America's future. Founded in 1997, we are committed to being on the cutting-edge of using the internet as a political organizing tool - and creating new models for internet activism.
A thematic research through its online archive, regarding "media coverage" or "media in wartime" could provide the reader with a full list of related American and international newspaper articles.

Consortium News
Founded in 1996, this web site was conceived as a "home" for well-reported stories not welcomed in the conventional news media. Fighting for honest information is the way Consortium News adopts to strengthen American democracy.
A relevant section of the archive analyses Media Crisis:

Exile Images
Exile Images - established in 2001 - is a documentary photo library / agency based in the UK. We currently represent fourteen established photojournalists. The library has extensive and expanding coverage from more than fifty countries.

Independent Media TV
Independent Media is designed to be an independent media outlet for views and artistic expression which are currently not being represented by our corporate media. With no influence from business and government, it has various areas of focus and numerous sections related to media & conflict:
- Top stories ignored by U.S. media: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=2
- Media Lies and Right Wings Bias: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=4
- media Censorship and Control: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=40
- 9/11 and War on Terror: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=1
- Iraq: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=5
- Israeli Palestinian Middle East Conflict: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=8

MediaChannel is a media issues supersite, featuring criticism, breaking news, and investigative reporting from hundreds of organizations worldwide. MediaChannel offers news, reports and commentary from our international network of media-issues organizations and publications, as well as original features from contributors and staff.

RFE/RL - Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty is a private, international communications service to Eastern and South-eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, Central and South-western Asia, funded by the U.S. government. Concentrating on events within this complex region, RFE/RL provides balanced, reliable information to bolster democratic development and market economies in countries where peaceful evolution to civil societies is of vital national interest to the United States.
A detailed section of the RFE/RL Archive is dedicated to "Media Matters" and contains articles concerning events and trends related to freedom of the press (media censorship, imprisonment of journalists, closure of media outlets and problematic press laws).



Article 19
With partners in over 30 countries, this campaign works to strengthen local capacity to monitor and protest institutional and informal censorship. It develops standards to advance media freedom, assist individual to speak out and campaign for the free flow of information.

Committee to Protect Journalists
The Committee to Protect Journalists is an independent, non-profit organization founded in 1981. We promote press freedom worldwide by defending the right of journalists to report the news without fear of reprisal.

Digital Freedom Network
Digital Freedom Network (DFN) is a non-profit group that seeks to promote human rights as an attainable goal for all countries. It believes that free enterprise, limited government, rule of law and individual freedom are the most effective means to ensure the rights of men and women across the world.

Center for Public Integrity
The Center for Public Integrity is a non-profit, non-partisan, tax-exempt organization that conducts investigative research and reporting on public policy issues in the United States and around the world. Founded in 1998 by Charles Lewis, it hopes to serve as an honest broker of information - and to inspire a better-informed citizenry.

Center for War, Peace, and the News Media
The Center for War, Peace, and the News Media (CWPNM) is a non-profit, non-partisan organization dedicated to supporting journalists and news organizations in their efforts to sustain an informed and engaged global citizenry. The Center is headquartered at the New York University Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, where it was founded in 1985.

Articles and Special Reports

"Before and After: How the War on Terrorism has Changed the News Agenda, Network Television, June-October 2001" (2001) in Project of Excellance in Journalism, November 19, 2001.

"Embedded Reporters: What Are Americans Getting? PEJ looks at embedding" (2003) in project of Excellance in Journalism, April 3, 2003.

"Grading TV's Wars News: Fox News Channels and Embedded Reporters Excelled, while Peter Jennings and Peter Arnett Flunked" (2003) in MRC's Report Card on War Coverage, Media Research Center, Alexndria, April 2003.

"Israel vs Palestinians: TV News Coverage of the Second Intifada" (2002), in Media Monitor, Vol. XV, n. 4, Center for Media and Public Affairs, Washington, July/August 2002.

"Jessica Lynch: The Media Mith-Making in the Iraq War" (2003), Project of Excellance in Journalism, June 23, 2003.

"The Media go to War: Tv News Coverage of the War in Iraq" (2003), in Media Monitor, Vol XVII, n. 2, Center for Media and Public Affairs, Washington, July/August 2003.

"The War on Terrorism: the Not-So-New Television News Landscape" (2002), in Project of Excellance in Journalism, May 23, 2002.

Bear, M. j. and Hall, Jane (2005) "Media Coverage of the War in Iraq", American University School of Communication, March 17, 2005.

Beelman, Maud S. (2002) "The Dangers of Disinforamtion in the War on Terrorism: 'we actually put out a false message to mislead people'", in The Center for Public Integrity, February 2, 2002.

Brookings/Harvard Forum (2001) "The Role of The press in the Antiterrorism Campaign: What the Public Things of The New Coverage since September 11", Project for Excellance in Journalism.

Campbell, Kim (2001) "Today's War Reporting: It's digital, but dangerous", in The Christian Science Monitor.

Davis, GArwin (2003) "Terrorism scare used to censor press", in Jamaica Gleaner, May 3, 2003.

Gitlin, Todd (2004) "The Great Media Breakdown", in Mother Jones, November/December 2004.

Goodman, Amy and Goodman David (2005) "Why Media Ownership Matters" in Seattle Times, April 3, 2005.

Gutierrez, Miren (2004) "The Pro-Agenda War", in Inter Press Service, July 1, 2004.

Hedges, Chris (2003) "The Media and the Myths of War", in The Nation, April 30, 2003.

Herold, Mark W. (2001) "Who will Count the Dead? US Media Fail to Report Civilian Casualties in Afghanistan", in Media Alliance.

Hickey, Neil (2002) "Perspective on Wars: Different Cultures, Different Coverage", in Columbia Journalism Review, April/May 2002.

Hughes, John (2001) "Pentagon and press can do both their job", in The Christian Science Monitor.

International front pages Sept. 12, 2001

Knightly, Philip (1999) "Journalism with Teeth: the disinformation campaign", in The Center for Public integrity, July 17, 1999.

Knightly, Philip (2001) "The Disinformation Campaign: Western media follow a depressive familiar formula when it comes to the preparation of a nation for conflict", in The Center for Public Integrity, October 14, 2001.

Li Bergoli, Mariella (2001) "The Untold Threat of propaganda", in Mediachannell.org.

Linch, Jake (2001) "Reporting the war on terrorism: a UK perspective", in Reporting the World.

Martin, Lawrence (2004) "Patriot Game, media Shame", in Globe and Mail, July 29, 2004.

Miles, Hugh (2003) "Watching the War on al-Jazeera" in London Review of Books, Vol 25, n. 8, April 2003.

Mitchell, Greg (2003) "Exclusive: US Military Document Outlines War Coverage", in Editor & Publisher.

Monbiot, George (2004) "Our Lies Led us into War", in the Guardian, July 20, 2004.

Murray, David (2001) "Media modesty versus meltdown", in VitalSTATS.

Nichols, John (2004) "CBS: No News, Just Stenography", in The nation, September 29, 2004.

Orloff, Brian (2005) "In Iraq War, the 'Truth' Sometimes Hurts", in Editor & Publisher, April 1, 2005.

Parrish, Geov (2001) "Afghan prison massacre: Americans media accounts differ from other sources", in WorkingForChange.

Pilger, John (2004) "The Media Culpability for Iraq", in Znet Daily Commentaries, October 9, 2004.

Roumani, Rhonda (2003) "One War, Two Channels: a Young Arab-American Keeps one Finger on the Remote", in Columbia Journalism Review, May/June 2003.

Scahill, Jeremy (2005) "Shooting the Messenger: the real issue in the Eason Jordan controversy is the US military killings of journalists in Iraq", in The Nation, March 7, 2005.

Schechter, Danny (2004) "Iraq Scandals: Media Failures Next", in MediaChannel, July 19, 2004.

Schechter, Danny (2004) "Are Media Covering their Errors or Covering Them Up" in Media Channel, August 16, 2004.

Straus, Tamara (2001) "The War for Public Opinion", in AlertNet.

Weissman, Steve (2005) "How the U.S. Military Threatens Journalists", in Truthout, February 24, 2005.





A special link is: http://www.questia.com, an on line library dealing with peace and conflict issues. One of its research topic, "Media in wartime", allows readers to access to a complete list of related books and papers: http://www.questia.com/Index.jsp?CRID=media_in_wartime&OFFID=se1&KEY=war_media.

Allen, Tim and Seaton, Jean eds. (1999) The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence, Zed Books, 256.

Artz, Lee and Kamalipour, Yahya R. eds. (2005) Bring 'em on: media and politics in the US war on Iraq, Lanham MD, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Baroody, Judith Raine (1998) Media access and the military: the case of the Gulf War, Lanham MD, Oxford: University Press of America, 239.

Bateman, Robert L. (2003) No Gun Ri: a military history of the Korean war incident, Mechanicsburg Pa., Stackpole Books, 302.

Bhattacharya, Sanjoy (2001) Propaganda and Information in Eastern India, 1939-45: a necessary weapon of war, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 242.

Boyne, Walter (2003) Operation Iraki freedom what went right, what went wrong and why, New York, Forge.

Committee to Protect Journalists (2004) Attacks on the Press in 2003, Committee to Protect Journalists, 400.

Denton, Robert E. Jr. ed. (1993) The Media and the Persian Gulf War, Westport Conn., London, Praeger, 302.

Fracassi, Claudio (2003) Bugie di Guerra: l'informazione come arma strategica, Milano, Mursia, 267.

Greenberg, Bradley S. and Gantz Walter eds. (1993) Desert Storm and the Mass Media, Cresskill N.J., Hampton Press, 447.

Hess, Stephen (1995) International News and Foreign Correspondents, Brookings Institute Press, Washington, 209.

Hess, Stephen and Kalb Marvin (2003) The Media and the War on Terrorism, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, 320.

Heukenkamp, Ursula (2001) Schuld und Sühne? Kriegserlebnis und kriegsdeutung in deutschen medien der nachkriegszeit (1945-1961), Amsterdam, Rodopoi, 827.

Hoskins, Andrew (2004) Televising War: from Vietnam to Iraq, London, Continuum, 148.

Ivanovic, Zivota (texts selected by) (1994) The Media War against the Serbs, Belgrade, Republic of Serbia: Ministry of Information: TANJUNG, 111.

Jertz, Walter (2001) Krieg der Worte-Macht der Bilder: manipulation oder Warheit im Kosovo-Konflict?, Bonn, Bernard & Graefe, 140.

Kamalipour, Yahia R. and Snow, Nancy (2004) War, Media and Propaganda: a Global Perspective, Lanham MD, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 261.

Keeble, Richard (1997) Secret state, silent press: new militarism, the Gulf and the modern image of warfare, Luton, University of Luton Press, 222.

Kolar-Panov, Dona (1997) Video, war and the diasporic imagination, London, Routledge, 270.

Leslie, Paul ed. (1997) The Gulf War as popular entertainment: an analysis of the military-industrial media complex, Lewiston N.Y, Lampeter, E. Mellen, 56.

Miller, David ed. (2004) Tell me lies: propaganda and media distortion in the attack on Iraq, London, Pluto, 310.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas (2005), Watching Babylon: the war in Iraq and global visual culture, London, Routledge, 208.

Morley, Patrick (1997) "This is AFN!": the American Forces Network in World War Two, Sandford, P. Morley, 50.

O'Donoghue, David (1998) Hitler's Irish voices: the story of German radio's wartime Irish service, Belfast, Beyond the Pale, 236.

Pena Rodríguez, Alberto (1998) El gran aliado de Franco: Portugal y la Guerra Civil espanola: prensa, radio, cine y propaganda, Sada, A Coruna, Edicios do Castro, 511.

Quesney, Chantal (2001) Kosovo-les mémoires qui tuent: la guerre vue sur internet, Québec: Presses de L'université Laval, Paris, Harmattan, 211.

Rotberg, Robert I. and Weiss, Thomas G. (1996) From Massacres to Genocide: The Media, Public Policiy and Humanitarian Crisis, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, 203.

Sadkovich, James J (1998) The U.S. Media and Yugoslavia, 1991-1995, Westport Conn., London: Praegen, 272.

Schecter, Danny (2003) Embedded-weapons of mass deception: how the media failed to cover the war in Iraq, Amherst N.Y., Prometheus Books.

Schecter, Danny (2003) News at a time of terror: dissecting media coverage after 9/11, Lanham MD, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 256.

Shaw, Martin (1996) Civil society and media in global crises: representing distant violence, London, Pinter, 212.

Taylor, Philip M. (1998) War and the media: propaganda and persuasion in the Gulf War, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 340.

Thomson Mark (1999), Forging war: the media in Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Hercegovina, Luton, University of Luton Press, 388.

Tumber, Howard and Palmer Jerry (2004) Media at war: the Iraq crisis, London, SAGE, 204.

Virilio, Paul (2002) Desert screen: war and the speed of light, London, Continuum, 148.

Winter, James (1992) Common cents: media portrayal of the Gulf War and other events, Montreal/New York, Black Rose Books, 274.



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