Children and Conflict BIBLIOGRAPHY

Helen Brocklehurst

The bibliography of children's roles in conflict is based on case studies and literature reviews included in a PhD Thesis in International Politics titled: Children as Political Bodies: Concepts, Cases and Theories, University of Wales, 1999 by Helen Brocklehurst. She is currently working as a research officer at INCORE. Contact:

The bibliography is arranged in the following sections:

Children and conflict: Northern Ireland

Cairns, Ed and Tara Cairns, "Children and Conflict: a Psychological Perspective", in Seamus Dunn ed., Facets of the Conflict in Northern Ireland (Houndmills: Macmillan Press, 1995), pp. 97-113.

Cairns, Ed, Caught in Crossfire: Children and the Northern Ireland Conflict (Belfast: Appletree Press, 1987).

Cairns, Ed, Children and political violence (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996).

Connolly, Paul with Paul Maginn, Sectarianism, Children and Community Relations in Northern Ireland (University of Ulster, Coleraine 1999)

Fay, Marie Therese, Mike Morrissey and Marie Smyth, Northern Ireland's Troubles: The Human Costs (London: Pluto Press, 1999)

Fraser, Morris, Children in Conflict, (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973).

Hewstone, Miles and Robert Brown, "Contact is not enough", in Contact and Conflict in Intergroup Encounters (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986).

INCORE / The Cost of the Troubles Study, The Final Report. The Cost of the Troubles Study, (Derry Londonderry: The United Nations University/The University of Ulster, April 1999)

McEvoy, Siobhan, Communities and Peace: Catholic Youth in Northern Ireland", Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 37, no. 1, 2000, pp. 85-103.

McLoughlin, Eithne, "Women and the family in Northern Ireland: a review," Women's Studies International Forum , Vol. 1, no. 4, 1992, pp. 475-491.

Morgan, Valerie and Grace Fraser, "Women and the Northern Ireland Conflict: Experiences and Responses", in Dunn, Seamus, ed., Facets of the Conflict in Northern Ireland (Houndmills: Macmillan Press, 1995), pp. 81-26.

O' Connor, Fionnula, "Tonight's the Night", The Independent on Sunday, 11 July 1999, p. 13.

Smyth Marie, and The Cost of the Troubles Study, Half the Battle: Understanding the impact of the troubles on children and young people, (Derry Londonderry: INCORE, 1998)

Trew, Karen, "Evaluating the Impact of contact schemes for Catholic and Protestant children" in Harbison, J. I ., ed., Growing Up in Northern Ireland (Belfast: Stranmillis College, 1989).


Northern Ireland: Conflict and education:

Caul, Leslie, Schools under scrutiny: the case of Northern Ireland (London: Macmillan, 1993).

Darby J. and Dunn S., "Segregated Schools: The Research Evidence", in R D.. Osbourne, R. J. Cormack, and R. L. Miller, eds., Education and Policy in Northern Ireland (Belfast: Policy Research Institute, 1987).

Dunn, S., Darby, J. and Mullan, K., Schools Together? (Coleraine: Centre for the Study of Conflict, 1984).

Dunn, Seamus, "The role of education in the Northern Ireland conflict", Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 12, no. 3. 1986. pp. 233-242.

Irwin, Colin, "Social Conflict and the failure of education policies in two deeply divided.,societies: Northern Ireland and Israel", Irish Educational Studies Vol. 3., no. 2 . 1983, pp. 90-109.

Magee, J, "The teaching of Irish History in Irish schools", The Northern Teacher, Vol. 10, no.1, 1970.

Murray, Dominic, "Identity: a covert pedagody in Northern Irish schools", Irish Educational Studies, Vol. 5, no 2, 1985, pp. 182-197.

Murray, Dominic, "Rituals and symbols as contributors to the culture of Northern Ireland primary schools", Irish Educational Studies Vol. 3., no. 2 . 1983, pp. 171-191.

Murray, Dominic, The chance of a lifetime: an evaluation of project children (Centre for the Study of Conflict: University of Ulster, 1993 ).


Children and conflict : South Africa

Balch, Jeff, Phyllis Johnson and Richard Morgan, "Apartheid and Destabilisation in Southern Africa: The legacy for Children and the Challenges Ahead", in Transcending the legacy: Children in the New Southern Africa (AEI/SARDC/UNICEF: Amsterdam, Harare, Nairobi, 1995). pp. 1-20.

Bloom, Leonard, Identity and Ethnic Relations in Africa (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998).

Brink, Elsabe, "Man-made women: gender, class and the ideology of the volksmoeder", in C. Walker, (ed.) Women and resistance in Southern Africa to 1945 (London: James Currey, 1990).

Chisholm, Linda and Bruce Fuller, "Remember People's education ? Shifting alliances, state-building and South Africa's narrowing policy agenda", Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 11 no. 6, 1996, pp. 700-701.

Cock, Jacqueline, Women and war in South Africa (London: Open Letters, 1992).

De Clerq, Francine, "Policy intervention and powershifts: an evaluation of South Africa's Education Restructuring Policies", Journal of Education policy, Vol. 12, no 3. 1997, pp. 668-712.

Dean, Jacqueline and Robert Sieborger, "After Apartheid: the outlook for history", Teaching History, April, 1995, p. 32-38.

du Toct, Marijke, '"Dangerous motherhood: maternity care and the gendered construction of Afrikaner identity, 1904-1939", in Valerie Fildes, Lara Marks and Hilary Marland eds., Women and Children First: International and Infant Welfare 1870 - 1945 ( London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 203-227.

Fataar, Aslam, "Access to schooling in a post apartheid South Africa: linking concept to context', International Review of Education, Vol. 43, no. 4. 1997.

Gaitskell, Deborah and Elaine Unterhalter, "Mothers of the nation: A comparative analysis of nation, race and motherhood in Afrikaner nationalism and the ANC", in Yuval-Davis, Nira and Floya Anthias, Woman-Nation-State (London: Macmillan, 1989).

Gerwelp, Jaks, "Education in South Africa: means and ends" in Jack E. Spence ed., Change in South Africa (London, RIIA: Pinter, 1994), pp. 82-93.

IDAF, Apartheid's Violence against children, 1988 Fact paper on South Africa no. 15.

IDAF, Apartheid's Violence against children, Fact paper on South Africa no. 15, 1988.

Kallaway, Peter, "History Education in a Democratic South Africa", Teaching History Vol. 78, January 1995, pp. 72-79.

King, Edmund, "Afrikaner Education", International Review of Education, Vol. 25, 1979, pp. 480-499.

Kotze, Hennie, "South Africa's youth in transition," in Ursula J.Van Beek ed., South Africa and Poland in transition: A comparative Perspective (Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council, 1995).

Manicom, Linzi, "Rethinking State and Gender in South African History", Journal of African History 33, no.3, 1992, pp.441-465.

Sa Muianga, Lucienga, "Rehabilitation and empowerment of the victims of war and violence in Southern Africa" in Transcending the legacy: Children in the New Southern Africa (AEI/SARDC/UNICEF: Amsterdam, Harare, Nairobi, 1995)

Subverting Apartheid: Education, Information and Culture under Emergency Rule (London: IDAF Publications, 1989).

Thomas, R. H., "Rehabilitation and Empowerment of the Victims of War and Violence in Southern Africa, in Transcending the legacy: Children in the New Southern Africa ( AEI/SARDC/UNICEF : Amsterdam, Harare, Nairobi, 1995), pp. 161-168.

Wedekind, Volker; Cassius Libisi, Ken Harley and John Gultig, "Political change, social integration and curriculum: a South African case study", Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol, 28, no. 4. pp. 199-223

Wolpe, Harold and Elaine Unterhalter, "Reproduction reform and transformation: approaches to the analysis of education in South Africa", in Elaine Unterhalter et al., eds., Apartheid Education and popular struggles (London: Research on Education in South Africa, 1991).


Children and conflict: Mozambique

Andersson, Hillary, Mozambique: A war against the People (London: Macmillan, 1992).

M Cole, P. Dodge, Magne Raundalen, Reaching Children in War: Sudan, Uganda and Mozambique (Bergen, Norway: Sigma Forlag, 1991).

M Johnston, Anton, "The Mozambican State and Education", in Martin Carnoy and Joel Sarnoff, Education and Social Transition in the Third World (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990).

M Knight, Derrick, Mozambique, Caught in the Trap (Christian Aid: 1988).

M Thomas, R. H., "Rehabilitation and Empowerment of children in difficult circumstances: the experence of Mozambique", in Transcending the legacy: Children in the New Southern Africa (AEI/SARDC/UNICEF: Amsterdam, Harare, Nairobi, 1995), pp. 149-158.

M Vines, Alex, Renamo: Terrorism in Mozambique (London: James Currey, 1991)


Child Soldiers

Brett, Rachel and margaret McCallin, Children: The Invisible Soldiers (Stockholm: Radda Barnen, 1996)

Fleming, John, "Children in bondage: Young soldiers, labourers, and sex workers," Sunday Independent, Johannesburg, 13 August 1995, reproduced in World Press Review, January 1996, p. 9.

Frankel, Mark et al., "Boy Soldiers: Special Report", Newsweek , 7 August 1995, p. 15.

Freedman, Stuart and Blake Morrison, "Children who kill", The Independent on Sunday, 4 October 1998.

Furley, Oliver, "Child soldiers in Africa", in Oliver Furley, ed., Conflict in Africa (London: Tauris, 1995), pp. 28-45.

Furley, Oliver, Child soldiers and Youths in African Conflicts: International Reactions (African Studies Centre: Occasional Papers Series, no. 1, 1995 ).

Hamilton, Carolyn, "Children in armed conflict - New moves for an old problem", The Journal of Child Law, Vol. 7 no.1, 1995, p. 46.

Goodwin-Gill, Guy and Ilene Cohn, Child Soldiers (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).

Human Rights Watch Africa, Children of Sudan: Slaves, Street Children and Child soldiers (USA: 1995).

Human Rights Watch/Africa, Easy Prey: Child Soldiers in Liberia (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1995).

McGreal, Chris, "Africa's child troops fuelled by drugs and revenge", The Guardian, 21 February 1995, p. 7.

McReady, Don, "Children of chaos", The Guardian, 17 November 1998, p. 20.

Moore, Molly; John Ward-Anderson, and Chris McGreal, "Fighting to rescue a lost generation," The Guardian, 29 April 1995, p. 15.

Zack-Williams, Alfred B., "Child's Play ? The Role of Child Soldiers In Sierra Leone", Unpublished Paper presented to the African Studies Association, Biennial Conference, University of Bristol, September 1996.


Children and conflict: general

Grant, James P., The State of the World's Children 1994 (New York: Oxford University Press).

Bellamy, Carol, The State of the World's children 1996 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

Banfield Jesse and Nevine Mabro, "Children in Statistics", Index on Censorship, Vol. 2, 1997, pp. 132-3.

Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, London: SAGE, 1995.

Hilsum, Lindsey, 'Rwanda's time of rape returns to haunt thousands,' The Observer, 26 February 1995, p. 17.

Holdsworth, Nick, "Tajiks opt for revival of the fittest", Times Higher, 6 November 1998, p. 16.

Kent, George, Children in the International Political Economy (London: Macmillan, 1995).

Moorhead, Caroline, "All the world's children", in Index on Censorship, Vol. 2, 1997, 151-160.

Nkhonjera, Peter, "Children in Bondage", World Press Review, January 1996, Vol. 43, no. 1, p. 8.

Roberts, James, "1996: 37,000 Children die each day," The Independent, 12 June 1996.

Simao, Pinda, "Education in Angola in the Post-Apartheid Era: Overcoming Physical and Spiritual Destruction", in Transcending the legacy: Children in the New Southern Africa, (AEI/SARDC/UNICEF: Amsterdam, Harare, Nairobi, 1995).

Tajfel, H., Human Groups and Social Categories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

UNICEF, Children First.

Benderly, Jill, "Rape, Feminism, and Nationalism in the War in Yugoslav Successor States", in Lois West ed., Feminist Nationalism (London: Routledge, 1997), pp. 59-64.

Bhatia, Shyam, "Sudan revives the slave trade", The Observer, 9 April, 1995, p. 14.

Burman, Erica, "Innocents abroad: western fantasies of childhood and the iconography of emergencies", in Disasters, Vol. 18, no. 3, 1992, pp. 238-253.

Burman, Erica, "Local, global or globalised? Child development and international child rights legislation", Childhood, Vol. 3, 1996, pp. 45-66.

Daly, Bridget and Jenny Vaughan, Children at war, (London: Macdonald, 1988). (children's text with photographs)

Fisher, Jo, Out of the shadows: Women, resistance and politics in South America (London: Latin American Bureau, 1993).

Graham-Brown, Sarah, "Battling for survival: War, Debt and Education in Mozambique Nicaragua and Sudan", in Education in the developing world: conflict and crisis (London and New York: Longman).

Green, Duncan, Hidden Lives: voices of children in Latin America and the Caribbean (Cassell, 1998).


International Children's rights

Carlsson, Ingar, "The Importance of Children's Rights," in Making Reality of Children's Rights (Stockholm: Radda Barnen, 1989).

Eekelaar, John, "The Interests of the Child and the Child's wishes: the role of dynamic self-determinism", in Philip Alston ed., The Best Interest of the Child. Reconciling Culture and Human Rights (Oxford: Clarendon Press, UNICEF, 1994), pp. 27-44.

Freeman, Michael, ed., Children's Rights : A Comparative Perspective (Dartmouth Aldershot: University College London, 1996).

Freeman, Michael, Rights and Wrongs of Children (London: Frances Pinter, 1983).

Goonesekere, Savitri, "The Best Interests of the Child: A South Asian Perspective", in Philip Alston ed., The Best Interest of the Child. Reconciling Culture and Human Rights (Oxford: Clarendon Press, UNICEF, 1994), pp. 6-21.

Matsushima, Yukiko, "Controversies and Dilemmas: Japan confronts the Convention," in Michael Freeman, Children's Rights : A Comparative Perspective (Dartmouth Aldershot: University College London, 1996).

Rwezaura, B., "The Concept of the Child's Best Interests in the Changing Context of Sub-Saharan Africa," in Philip Alston ed., The Best Interest of the Child. Reconciling Culture and Human Rights (Oxford: Clarendon Press, UNICEF, 1994), pp. 101-113.

Van Beuren, Geraldine, The International Law on the Rights of the Child (Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1995).

United Nations Children's Fund, The Convention on the Rights of the Child (London: UK Commitee for UNICEF, 1995).

Vittachi, Anuradha, Stolen Childhood, In search of the rights of the child (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989).

Vittachi, Tarzie, Making Reality of Children's Rights (Stockholm: Radda Barnen, 1989).


Children and Childhood: general

Boyden, Jo, 'Childhood and the Policy Makers: A Comparative Perspective on the Globalisation of Childhood," in Alan James and Alan Prout, Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood (London: Falmer Press, 1990), pp. 190-216.

Buckingham, David, Moving Images: Understanding children's emotional responses to television (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996).

Corsaro, William A., The Sociology of Childhood (Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press, 1997).

ESRC Children 5-16 Research Programme for the 21st Century, 1996-1999.


Children: Current UK education debate

Brown, Margot and Ian Davies, "The Holocaust and education for citizenship: the teaching of history, religion and history in England", Education Review, Vol. 50, no.1. 1998, pp. 228-247.

Burtonwood, Neil, "Culture, Identity and the Curriculum," Education Review, Vol, 48, no.3, 1996, pp. 227-235.

Carrington, Bruce and Geoffrey Short, "Reconstructing multiracial education: a response to Mike Cole", Cambridge Journal of education, Vol 28, no. 2, 1998, 271-282.

Carrington, Bruce and Short Geoffrey, "Holocaust education anti-racism and citizenship" Educational Review, Vol 49, no. 3, 1997.

Cole, Mike, "Re-establishing Multiracial education; a reply to Short and Carrington", Cambridge Journal of Education, Vol 28, no. 3, 1998, pp. 270-280.

Connolly, M. and J. Ennew, eds., "Children out of Place: Special Issue on Street and Working Children", Childhood, 3, no. 2, 1996.

Coulby, David, "European Curricula, xenophobia and warfare", Comparative Education Vol, 33, no.1. 1998, pp. 28-40.

Grosvenor, Ian and Maria Green, "Making subjects: history writing, education and race categories", Paedegogica Historica, Vol. 33, no. 3, 1998, pp. 227-251.

Guyver, Robert, "National Curriculum History: key concepts and controversy", in Teaching History, no.88, 1997, pp. 16-19.

Plowright, John, "Teaching the holocaust: A response to the report of a survey in the UK," Teaching History, no. 45, 1991, pp. 26-29.

Wilson, Gillian, " History - Ours or yours ? Pt 1", Teaching History, no.19, 1986, pp. 9-13


Children and Conflict: Political Socialisation in British Empire and Cold War

Ball, Stephen, "Imperialism, social control and the colonial curriculum in Africa", Journal of Curriculum Studies, no. 25. 1983, pp. 237-63.

Fildes, Valerie, Lara Marks and Hilary Marland eds., Women and Children First: International and Infant Welfare 1870 - 1945 (London: Routledge, 1992).

Comaccio, Cynthia R., "The infant soldier: early child welfare efforts in Ontario", in Valerie Fildes, Lara Marks and Hilary Marland eds., Women and Children First: International and Infant Welfare 1870 - 1945 ( London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 97-120.

Kanitkar, Helen, "'Real true boys' Moulding the cadets of Imperialism", in Andrea Cornwall and Nancy Lindisfarne, Dislocating masculinity, comparative ethnographies (London: 1994), pp.184 -196.

Mangan, J. A, "Images for confident control", in J. A. Mangan ed., The Imperial Curriculum: Racial images and education in the British colonial experience (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 6-22.

Mangan, James A. and S. Walvin eds., Manliness and morality: Middle class masculinity in Britain and America in Britain and America 1800 -1940 (Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1987).

Teitelbaumn, Michael S. and Winter, Jay M., The fear of population decline (Orlando: Academic Press, 1985).

Brown, JoAnne, "A is for atom, B is for Bomb:Civil Defense in American Public Education, 1948-1963", The Journal of American History, Vol. 75, no. 1, 1988, pp. 68-90.

Caldicott, Helen, Missile Envy: The Arms Race and nuclear war (New York: Bantam, 1984).

May, Elaine Tyler, Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (New York: Basic Books, 1988).

Stephens, Sharon, "Nationalism, nuclear policy and children in Cold War America, Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, Vol. 4, no.1, 1997, pp. 103-123.


Children and conflict: Nazi Germany

Bessel, Richard, "The front generation and the politics of Weimar Germany", in Mark Roseman, ed., Generations in conflict: youth revolt and generation formation in Germany 1770 - 1968 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 121-136.

Bock, Gisela, "Antinatalism, maternity and paternity in National Socialist racism", in David F. Crew, ed., Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945 (London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 110-131.

Burleigh, M., and Wipperman, W. The Racial State: Germany 1933-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Childers, Thomas and Caplan Jane eds., Re-evaluating the Third Reich (London: Holmes and Meier, 1993).

Clay, Catrine and Michael Leapman, Master Race: The Lebensborn experiment in Nazi Germany (London: BCA and Hodder and Stoughton, 1995).

Friedlander, Henry, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, From Euthanasia to the Final solution (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1995).

Koonz, Claudia, "Eugenics, Gender and Ethics in Nazi Germany: The Debate about Involuntary Sterilization", in Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan eds., Re-evaluating the Third Reich (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1993), pp.67-85.

Koonz, Claudia, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family and Nazi Politics (London: Methuen, 1987).

Mason, Tim, "Women in Germany, 1925-1940: Family, Welfare and Work. Part I", in History Workshop, (1976), pp. 74-115.

Mason, Tim, "Women in Germany, 1925-1940: Family, Welfare and Work.Part II," History Workshop, (1976), pp. 5-32.

Pine, Lisa, "Nazism in the classroom," in History Today, April 1997, pp. 22-7. Stachura, Peter D., Nazi Youth in the Weimar Republic (Oxford: Clio Books; 1975).

Stephenson, Jill, "Women, Motherhood and the family in the Third Reich", in Michael Burleigh ed., Confronting the Nazi past: new debates on modern German history (London: Collin & Brown, 1996), 167-183.

von Saldern, A. "Victims or Perpetrators? Controversies about the role of Women in the Nazi State' in Crew, David F. ed., Nazism and German Society (London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 141-164.

Weindling, Paul, Health, race and German politics between national unification and Nazism 1870-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).