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Guides index

INCORE guide to Internet sources on Gender and Conflict

Resources compiled by Alessia Montanari (June 2005)


Inclusion in this guide does not imply an endorsement by INCORE of the views expressed in any of these sources. If you have a complaint about this guide or believe that we have omitted a relevant source please read our information about the guides before writing to us. You may find that this will answer some of your questions. This includes a warning about the type of information included in the guide, information about our 'criteria for inclusion' in the guides and about our 'updating and additions policy'.

Women and Conflict

Men and Conflict

Bibliographic References


Women and Conflict

 Women in the Military

Army Professional Women's Association
The Army Women's Professional Association began in 1988 as an informal organization of about ten women officers to stimulate networking among Army women in the Washington, DC area. During 1991, the informal membership developed an interest in formalizing the organization.

Committee on Women in the NATO Forces
Advises NATO leadership and member nations on critical issues affecting women in the Alliance's Armed Forces. The Committee is mainly aimed at promoting gender equality in terms of recruitment and employment, training and development and quality of life.

Defense Dept Advisory Committee on Women in the Services
Established in 1951, the DACOWITS composed of civilian women and men who are appointed by the Secretary of Defense to provide advice and recommendations on matters and policies relating to the recruitment and retention, treatment, employment, integration, and well-being of highly qualified professional women in the Armed Forces. Annual reports and researches' outcomes are online available.

Military Women
Online since 1996, this site is a meeting place for military women to exchange information to their military experience and to offer firsthand information to women thinking about a military career.

The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an organization of feminist activists in the United States. The "Women in the Military" section Includes action alerts and articles on various issues affecting women in the military.

Centre for Women Veterans
The main goal of this association is to assess women veterans' services on an ongoing basis, to ensure that VA policy and planning practices addresses the needs of women veterans and foster VA participation in general Federal initiatives focusing on women's issues.

US Army Womens Museum
The Museum website offers visitors an historical photo-gallery on women in the armed force and stories about notable women, providing also link to interesting related sites.

Women in the Armed Forces
Detailed bibliography by Air University Library, including books, documents and periodicals on the subject on women in the armed forces.

Women Marine Association
The WMA is a non-profit veterans association comprised of women who have served or are serving in the United States Marine Corps regular or reserve components.

Women Memorial
The Women In Military Service For America Memorialis a no-profit, charitatable organization and the only major national memorial honoring all women who have defended America throughout history.
The Women's Memorial Foundation offers, students and teachers a comprehensive kit of materials and activities about the women who make up more than 220 years of varied service to the nation's defense.



Women and Peacebuilding

Coalition of Women for Peace
The Coalition of Women for Peace has become one of the leading voices in Israel advocating for a just and viable peace between Israel and Palestine. The Coalition brings together independent women and nine women's peace organizations It is a mix of Jewish and Palestinian women, who take action to amplify the voices of women calling for peace and justice for all inhabitants of the region.
This is the list of the members of the organization:
- Bat Shalom
- The Fifth Mother
- Machsom Watch
- Noga - Feminist Journal
- Women in Black: http://www.womeninblack.org
- New Profile
- TANDI - Movement of Democratic Women for Israel

Feminism and Peace Studies
A detailed bibliography compiled by Jody Rank in 1996.

Femmes Africa Solidarite
Set up in 1996 in Geneve and supported by UNDF, Femmes Africa Solidarite focuses on promoting and strengthening the role of African women in preventing, managing and resolving conflicts.
Women's best practices and case studies on Niger, Liberia, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Chad and Tunisia are online available:

Follow the Women
Launched in April 2004, this peace campaign is diorected at four main aims: show solidarity with Arab women in the Middle East, change the perception of international community, raise supports for a move towards peace and justice and raise funds for a counselling centre in Ramallah.

Gender and Peacebuilding Working Group
The GPWG is a network supported by the Canadian Peace-building Coordinating Committee, designed to strengthen collaboration among Canadian organizations, activists, and academics, by providing a forum for the exchange of resources, facilitating dialogue between and among civil society and government and contributing to the direction of programming and policy.

Mano River Women's Peace Network
In May 2000, under the auspices of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), a group of African women coming from Guinea Liberia and Sierra Leone decided to start promoting together their participation in the process of preventing and managing conflicts and restoring peace in Africa.
This aim has been pursued through a range of activities (trainings, summits, mobilization and awareness-raising campaigns, dialogue practices…), spreading also peace values through an online journal, Voices of Peace (http://www.marwopnet.org/voicesofpeace.htm)

NOW - Working for Peace
The National Organization for Women (NOW) is the largest organization of feminist activists in the United States. Since its founding in 1966, NOW's goal has been to take action to bring about equality for all women. Its "Working for Peace "section includes NOW's Progressive Feminist Agenda for Peace, reports about current international conflicts and archive sources on women's role in managing conflicts.

The Jerusalem Link
Set up in 1994 after a meeting in Brussels, The Jerusalem Link is the coordinating body of two independent women's centers: Bat Shalom-The Jerusalem Women's Action Center (http://www.batshalom.org), located in West Jerusalem, and Marcaz al-Quds la l-Nissah-The Jerusalem Center for Women (http://www.j-c-w.org), located in East Jerusalem. The two organizations share a set of political principles, which serve as the foundation for a cooperative model of co-existence between our respective peoples.

West Africa Network for Peacebuilding - Women in Peacebuilding
WANEP's work began in 1990 to establish a regional network of peace-building initiatives in West Africa.
WIPNET (Women in Peace-building Network) is one of its current main programmes, examining avenues through which West Africa women can play more functional roles in peacebuilding. A core objective of this program is to enable women to transform the negative image of 'helpless victimhood' to a positive and more assertive image of stakeholders and active participants in the pursuit for peace in their communities.

Women Building Peace

This international campaign launched by International Alert (http://www.international-alert.org) in 1999 with the support of over 200 women's organizations, has contributed to the placing the issues of women, peace and security firmly onto the international agenda. It includes case studies on women peace-builders in Ethiopia, Northern Ireland, Cambodia and Israel.
Gender & Peacebuilding Programme is the Programme developed by Women Building Peace Campaign, ensuring that gender perspectives inform the implementation of regional and national peace and security and development policies in troubled countries.

Women for Peace
Set up in 1994 following the example of women's engagement in the peace process in Northern Ireland, this association involves mainly Swiss women interested in changing people's idea of "enemy", in order to reduce conflicts. It launches peace actions and campaigns, supporting projects in Marocco, Israel/Palestine and Russia.

Women's Action for New Directions
WAND empowers women to act politically to reduce violence and militarism, and redirect excessive military resources toward unmet human and environmental needs.

Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children
The Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children works to ensure that refugee and displaced women, children and adolescents are given protection, encouraged to participate, and have access to education, health services and livelihood opportunities.
Annual summaries, newsletter and an updated thematic reports list are online available (http://www.womenscommission.org/reports/index.shtml).

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Founded in 1913 in The Hague (Netherlands) by some 1300 women protesting the killing and destruction of the war, it is now a large and established organisation that highlights a range of issues including peace, human rights and economic justice.
It Incorporates The Peace Women Project, committed at monitoring and working towards a rapid and full implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, on women, peace and security (http://www.peacewomen.org).
Among its online publications, there are Booklets, reports and newsletter referring to current issues and women's engagement in peace-processes.

Women Waging Peace
An initiative of the Women and Public Policy Program at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government and Hunt's Alternatives. Women Waging Peace connects women addressing conflict around the world in the belief that they have a role to play, "in preventing violent conflict, stopping war, reconstructing ravaged societies, and sustaining peace in fragile areas around the world".
Main issues of analysis are "conflict prevention", "peace negotiation" and "post-conflict reconstruction". A full list of WWP's publications is online available (http://www.womenwagingpeace.net/content/resources.asp#pub).

Women War Peace
UNIFEM (The United Nations Development Fund for Women) portal on women, peace and security (http://www.womenwarpeace.org/index.htm), dealing with a wide range of issues, including peacekeeping, peace-process, prevention, reconstruction (http://www.womenwarpeace.org/issue.htm).



Truth and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland. (International Governmental and Non-governmental Organisations)


Amnesty International (Stop Violence Against Women Campaign)
Women and War is one of the issues this campaign is focusing on, addressing women both as victims of conflict and violence and as important leaders in peace talks and reconstruction.
Amnesty International campaign to stop violence against women, especially in armed conflicts.

Coalition for Women;s Rights in Conflict Situations
The main focus of the Coalition's work is to promote the adequate prosecution of perpetrators of crimes of gender violence in transitional justice systems, in order to create precedents that recognise violence against women in conflict situations and help find ways to obtain justice for women survivors of sexual violence. Special sections report on Rwanda, Sierra Leone and former Yugoslavia.

Human Rights Watch
Provides extensive information on women's human rights developments around the world.
Close attention is paid to thematic issue "Women in Armed Conflict, International Justice", focusing on conflict situations (Sudan, Iraq, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leona, Rwanda, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Afghanistan).
Related publications are online available: http://hrw.org/doc/?t=women_conflict

MADRE is an international women's human rights organization that works in partnership with women's community-based groups in conflict areas worldwide. Our programs address issues of armed conflict and forced displacement, women's health and reproductive rights, economic justice and community development, indigenous peoples' rights and resources, food security and sustainable development, human rights advocacy, youth, and US foreign policy.
Currently, MADRE is sustaining the following programmes:
- LIMPAL: since 1997 it has worked with women who have been displaced by Colombia's long-standing armed conflict, helping them overcome the devastating effects of displacement and advocate for their rights.
- Organization of Women's Freedom in Iraq: OWFI is working to provide a sanctuary from violence for Iraqi women, who cite the lack of personal security as the greatest problem they face in post-invasion Iraq.
- The Ibdaa Cultural Centre: it is a community centre established in the Dheisheh refugee camp (Palestine), developing educative programmes for children and providing families with medical treatment and counseling.

Oxfam International
Oxfam International is a confederation of 12 organizations working together with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty, suffering and injustice.
Close attention is continuously paid to conflict zones and emergencies, usually faced thanks to the cooperation with local aid agencies and women's groups.
Currently, some of the main regional crisis are:
- Sudan: http://www.oxfam.com/eng/programs_emer_sudan.htm
- Iraq: http://www.oxfam.com/eng/programs_emer_iraq.htm
- Liberia: http://www.oxfam.com/eng/programs_emer_liberia.htm
- Dem. Republic of Congo: http://www.oxfam.com/eng/programs_emer_liberia.htm

UNESCO (Women and Culture of peace Programme)
Women and a Culture of Peace Programme is part of the UNESCO's transdisciplinary Project "Towards a Culture of Peace", established in 1996 and aimed at supporting women's initiatives for peace and public participation in political processes all around the world.

UN Division for the Advancement of Women - UNDAW
Grounded in the vision of equality of the United Nations Charter, the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) advocates the improvement of the status of women of the world.

The United Nations agency dealing with refugees and displaced people in conflict areas pays great attention to women as victim of wars, developing specific policies and providing links to UN and NGO websites, documenting the role of women in conflicts and in conflict resolution.

Women's Edge Coalition
The Women's Edge Coalition, a non-partisan organization, was created in 1998 to advocate for the needs of millions of women and poor people around the worldin the context of unfair global trade.
Among the topic issues the organization is engaged with, there are:
- Women and war: http://www.womensedge.org/pages/regionsandissues/issue.jsp?id=59
- Women, conflicts and peace-building: http://www.womensedge.org/pages/referencematerials/reference_material.jsp?id=6
- Rebuilding Iraq and Afghanistan: http://www.womensedge.org/ pages/referencematerials/reference_material.jsp?id=267



Academic and Research Institutes

Set up in 1992 as a specialised gender and development research and information service within the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), United Kingdom (UK), Bridge supports gender mainstreaming efforts of policymakers and practitioners by closing the gaps between theory, policy and practice with accessible and diverse gender information.
Bridge also researches "Gender, Conflicts and Emergencies": http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports_gend_con_em.htm.

Northern Ireland - Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
This site contains information and source material on 'the Troubles' in Northern Ireland from 1968 to the present.
One of the Key issues analysed deals with Women in the conflict, continuously updating a detailed list of reports and online sources focusing on women's role in Northern Ireland Peace Process.

Gender and Peacekeeping
Main aim of this online course is to contribute incorporating an understanding of gender issues in the work of groups involved in Peace Support Operations (PSO).
Bibliographic resources and reports are online available: http://www.genderandpeacekeeping.org/resources-e.asp

Minerva Centre
Established in 1983, The Minerva Center is an educational and research corporation for the study of women in war and women and the military.
Since its formation, it has focused on publication, publishing two periodicals: MINERVA: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military and Minerva's Bulletin Board (www.minervacenter.com/period.htm). The site is also provided with a detailed bibliography on women in the Military (www.minervacenter.com/bibs_main.htm)

Women's Research and Education Institute
Since 1977, Women's Research & Education Institute is committed to non-partisan information and policy analysis on women's equity issues. WREI's mission is to identify issues affecting women and their roles in the family, workplace, and public arena, and to inform and help shape the public policy debate on these issues.
Since 1989, WREI has monitored the status of women in the U.S. armed forces, examining the roles and responsibilities of females in all uniformed professions. Links to a comprehensive bibliography, statistics, facts and significant events concerning women in armed force are online available.

Set up in 1965 as an autonomous body within the United Nations, The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) enhances the effectiveness of the UN through appropriate training and research.
UNITAR has developed a Training Programme for Civilians Personnel in UN Peacekeeping Operations entitled "The Special Needs of Women and Children in and after Conflict": http://www.unitar.org/wcc

Established in 1976 in the Dominican Republic, INSTRAW has carried out research and training activities on different topics at national, regional and international levels, always cooperating with governments, civil society and UN system.

Women's Human Rights Resources
WHRR is a free, accessible online library of international women's rights law. The purpose of the WHRR web site is to help researchers, students, teachers, and human rights advocates locate authoritative and diverse information on women's international human rights via the Internet.
One of its database research area deals with "Women and Armed Conflicts" (http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/whrr/display_annotation.cfm?ID=10&sister=utl), offering updated information on related articles, documents and books.

Womens Internet Information
It is a non-profit educational corporation dedicated to telling the stories of women, whose contributions have been ignored or minimized in traditional histories. Particular attention is paid to Women's Military History.



Articles and reports

Addressing the Needs of Women Affected by Armed Conflicts (2004), ICRC.

American Women and the Military (2000), GenderGap.org

Eisenstein, Zillah (2004) Sexual Humiliation, Gender Confusion and the Horrors at Abu Ghraib, Women's Human Rights Net.

Farr, Vanessa (2003) The Importance of a Gender Perspective to successful disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes, UNIDIR Disarmament Forum

Febbraro R., Angela (2003) Women, Leadership and Gender Integration in the Canadian Combat Arms. A qualitative Study, Defence R&D Canada

Kippenberg, Juliane (2005) Seeking Justice: the Prosecution of Sexual Violence in Congo War, Human Rights Watch.

Marques, Nadejda (2003) Struggling Through Peace: Return and Resettlement in Angola, Human Rights Watch

Obando, Ana Elena (2003) The Right to peace, Women's Human Rights Net.

Rehn, Elisabeth and Johnson Sirleaf, Ellen (2003) Women, War and Peace: The Independent Experts' Assessment on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Women's Role in Peace-building, UNIFEM.

Reilly Niamh (2003) War and Armed Conflicts, Women's Human Rights Net.

Resolution 1325/2000 (2000), United Nations Security Council

Rodriguez Bello, Caroline (2003) Refugees and Internally Displaced, Women's Human Right Net

Sculier, Caroline (2003) Every Day Victims: Civilians in the Burundian War, Human Rights Watch

Sexual and Gender-based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons (2003) United Nations High Commission for Refugees.

Sikoska, Tatjana and Solomon, Juliet, Introducing Gender in Conflict and Conflict Prevention: Conceptual and Policy Implications, INSTRAW.

Women and Peace and Security: Report of the Secretary General, (2004), United Nations.

Women in the Armed Forces (2002), The Employment of Women in the Armed Forces Steering Group

Women, Peace and Security (2002), United Nations.

Women Warriors (2000), GenderGap.org



Men and Conflict


Masculinity, Militarism and Armed Forces

American Soldier
This web site is a blog by a soldier, dubbed "American Soldier", who continuously posts reports about his experience in the U.S Army, especially after 9/11.
The site provides links to similar sources online.

Centre for Young Men's StudiesINCORE's research centre examining the effects of violence and post-conflict socio-economic issues on young men in Northern Ireland. http://www.incore.ulster.ac.uk/about/specialist/cyms

Defense Analytical Service Agency - DASA
DASA was launched in July 1992 to provide professional analytical and statistical services and advice to the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD), and defence-related statistics to Parliament, other Government Departments and the public.
Statistics regarding the percentage of male/female personnel employed in the UK Armed Forces and Armed Forces Suicide Reports are online available.

It is an online encyclopedia on gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and queer culture.
Among the issues GLBTQ analyses, a special focus is dedicated to:
- US Military Law: http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/military_law_us.html
- European Military Culture: http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/military_law_us.html
- US Military Culture: http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/military_culture_us.html

Soldiers Online
This portal is aimed at providing information for American soldiers, dealing with current issues and Army news.

The Men's Project
Based in Northern Ireland and officially launched in September 1998, at its heart is the aim of increasing awareness of the issues facing local men and boys and promoting their social inclusion.

The US Army
The official US Army web site provides information on a wide range of topic related to military forces and national security.
Soldiers and American troops are both the main addresses and the core issue: special sections are dedicated to soldiers stories, tributes and Army images.

Youth and Militarism Program
The Program works to reduce the impacts of war and military institutions on young people's lives, supporting those who refuse to participate in militarism, walking away from war and violence.
Interesting issues analysed are Gays & Lesbians and the Military and Women and the Military: http://webarchive.afsc.org/youthmil/issues.htm

Research into Men and Violence

Amnesty International
Prisoners and prisoners conditions are continuously monitored by Amnesty International reports focusing on regional conflicts:
Afghanistan: http://web.amnesty.org/wire/April2002/Afghan_prisoners
Guantanamo Bay: http://web.amnesty.org/wire/April2002/guantanamo

Human Rights Watch
Since its foundation, one of the core issues HRW has focused on is "Prisons and the treatment of Prisoners". Detailed reports and analysis have been carried out on human rights violations commonly inflicted to prisoners, international organizations' action to stop abuses, comparative studies by region and issue.

Men. Masculinity and Gender Relations in Development
This web site provide online reports of a series of 5 seminars co-ordinated by Dr Frances Cleaver of The Development and Project Planning Centre, in partnership with The School of Development Studies (University of East Anglia), The Institute of Development Studies (University of Sussex) and Oxfam, over a period of 21 months between September 1998 and June 2000.
Seminar 4, dealing with violence and gender issues, focused mainly on Militarism in Uganda and on East Timor crisis as core case studies.

Working with Men
NGO supporting the development of work with men through projects, resources, publications, training and consultancy.
Some of current projects it is developing concern "18-30 Years Old Refugee Men", an eye on Ethiopian Refugees fled in a Support Centre, "Old Warren Partnership (Northern Ireland)", a leadership programme for young men, predominantly in protestant areas, and "Young men and Violence", a report launched in 2003 to evaluate a related project in Belfast.

Youth Action Northern Ireland
YouthAction Northern Ireland is a voluntary youth organisation which works to enable young people to achieve their full potential.
YA offers support, training and resources to local workers and community groups working with young men, investing funds also in developing a project on "Young men and Violence" in Northern Ireland society:

Men's Organisations for Peace/Non-violence

American Friends Service Committee
The American Friends Service Committee carries out service, development, social justice, and peace programs throughout the world.
It has developed the "Youth and Militarism Progam", working to reduce the impacts of war and military institutions on young people's lives. Aims to halt the influence of the military in US schools, helping students and educators work for peace and better education in their communities and supporting those who refuse to participate in militarism. Conscientious objection and counter-recruitment are supported.
More information on Military recruitment, soldiers' life and alternatives to the Army are online available: http://webarchive.afsc.org/youthmil/Default.htm

Bring Them Home Now
Campaign of military families, veterans, active duty personnel, reservists and others opposed to the ongoing war in Iraq, demanding an immediate return of all US troops.

Iraq Veterans Against the War
Iraq Veterans Against the War (IVAW) is a group of veterans who have served since September 11th, 2001 (including Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom). They believe that the governments that sponsored these wars are indebted to the men and women who were forced to fight them and must give their Soldiers, Marines, Sailors, and Airmen the benefits that are owed to them upon their return home.

Men Stopping Violence
Men Stopping Violence is a social change organization dedicated to ending male violence against women.

Men's International Peace Exchange

The Men's International Peace Exchange (MIPE) brings together women and men to foster peaceful beliefs, attitudes and behaviors for us to move from cultures which support men in being violent to ones which support men in being peaceful.

Men's Resource Centre
The mission of the Men's Resource Center of Western Massachusetts is to support men, challenge men's violence, and develop men's leadership in ending oppression in themselves, families and communities. It is aimed at supporting men to overcome the damaging effects of rigid and stereotyped masculinity, and simultaneously confront men's patterns of personal and societal violence and abuse toward women, children, and other men.

Veterans Against Iraq War
Veterans Against Iraq War is a coalition of American veterans who support US troops but oppose war with Iraq or any other nation that does not pose a clear and present danger to American people and the States.

Veterans for Peace
Founded in 1985, Veterans For Peace includes male and female veterans from World War II, Korea, Vietnam, the Gulf War, other conflicts and peacetime veterans.
Areas of main concern deal not only with Iraqi war, but also with other troubled countries affected (nowadays or in the past) by war: Central America, Colombia, Vietnam. Korea…

Articles and reports

Dolan, Chris (2003) Does War Reinforce a Dominant Notion of masculinity?, id21 Research

El-Bushra, Judy (2002) Focused in Combat: Gender Relations and Armed Conflicts, id21 Research

Enloe, Cynthia (2000) Masculinity as Foreign Policy Issue, InFocus, Vol. 5, N. 36.

Getting away with Torture. Command responsibility for the U.S. of Detainees (2005), Human Rights Watch

Matthews, Lloyd J. and Pavri, Tinaz eds. (1999) Population Diversity and the US Army, Strategic Studies Institute

The Road to Abu Ghraib (2004), Human Rights Watch

Truscott, Susan and Wait, Tracey (1996) Military Family Violence and Violence against Women: Causes and Incidence, Department of National Defence Canada

Young Men and Violence Report (2003), Working with Men

Bibliographic References

Questia is the world's largest online collection of complete books, journals and articles in the humanity and social sciences.

The Men's Bibliograpy
The Men's Bibliography is a comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography of writing on men, masculinities, gender, and sexualities.
Full bibliographic link are provided on:
- War and the military: http://mensbiblio.xyonline.net/violence2.html#Warmilitary
- Men's anti-violence education and activism: http://mensbiblio.xyonline.net/violence2.html#Antiviolenceactivism

Women's Human Rights Resources
Section on "Books Details" provides a detailed list of texts concerning women in conflict situations, women as victims of war and women's role in peace-management and post-war reconstruction.



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